International Phonetic Alphabet


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Please click on the symbol in the figure below.

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  Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Retroflex
Plosive p b         t d     ʈ ɖ
Nasal   m   ɱ       n       ɳ
Trill   ʙ           r        
Tap or Flap             ɾ       ɽ
Fricative ɸ β f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ
Lateral fricative             ɬ ɮ        
Approximant       ʋ       ɹ       ɻ
Lateral approximant               l       ɭ
  Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal
Plosive c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ   ʔ  
Nasal   ɲ   ŋ   ɴ        
Trill           ʀ        
Tap or Flap                    
Fricative ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ h ɦ
Lateral fricative                    
Approximant   j   ɰ            
Lateral approximant   ʎ   ʟ            
Symbols to the right in a cell are voiced, to the left are voiceless.
 :Articulations judged impossible
Five criteria to describe (pulmonic) consonants.
(1) Type of phonation ([Voiced] or [Voiceless] depends on whether or not the vocal cords vibrate, as in a breathy voice, whispery voice, creaky voice, etc.)
(2) Place of articulation (Location in airstream of interruption)
(3) Airstream passage (Whether the airstream escapes in the mid-line of the vocal tract [mid-line] or at the side of it [lateral])
(4) Manner of articulation and the degree of stricture
(5) State of the velum (Whether the airstream passes through the nasal cavity [nasal] or the oral cavity [oral])