International Phonetic Alphabet


Please click on the symbol in the left figure.

Please click on the symbol in the figure below.

Symbols to the right in a cell are voiced, to the left are voiceless.
 :Articulations judged impossible
Five criteria to describe (pulmonic) consonants.
(1) Type of phonation ([Voiced] or [Voiceless] depends on whether or not the vocal cords vibrate, as in a breathy voice, whispery voice, creaky voice, etc.)
(2) Place of articulation (Location in airstream of interruption)
(3) Airstream passage (Whether the airstream escapes in the mid-line of the vocal tract [mid-line] or at the side of it [lateral])
(4) Manner of articulation and the degree of stricture
(5) State of the velum (Whether the airstream passes through the nasal cavity [nasal] or the oral cavity [oral])